REVIEW ARTICLE


Dose Can Help to Achieve Effective Pain Relief for Acute Mild to Moderate Pain with Over-the-Counter Paracetamol



Charly Gaul1, *, #, Alain Eschalier2, #
1 Migraine and Headache Clinic Königstein, 61462 Königstein im Taunus, Germany
2 Université Clermont Auvergne, UMR Inserm Neuro-dol, Institut Analgesia, Clermont-FerrandFrance


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© 2018 Gaul and Eschalier.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Charly Gaul Ölmühlweg 31, 61462 Königstein im Taunus, Germany, Tel: +49 (0) 6174-29040, Fax: +49 (0) 6174-2904100, E-mail: c.gaul@migraene-klinik.de

# Both authors contributed equally to this work.


Abstract

Background:

Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most widely used Over-The-Counter (OTC) analgesics for the self-treatment of mild to moderate acute pain. Different dosages are used in different countries and, in some of them, a large proportion of adults are using low doses (325 mg to 500 mg).

Objectives:

The objective of the study was to review information from published research studies to answer the question: is there a dose-dependent analgesic effect of paracetamol in the treatment of mild to moderate acute pain?

Methods:

A detailed assessment of available systematic reviews, meta-analyses and single randomised trials was undertaken based on an electronic literature search focusing on studies comparing higher and lower doses of paracetamol in the management of mild to moderate acute pain.

Results:

Reviews and comparative trials generally showed greater efficacy with higher dose paracetamol (1000 mg) than with lower doses (500 mg or 650 mg) in achieving clinically significant pain relief with comparable tolerability in different types of pain.

Conclusions

The nature and intensity of the pain are two key elements of the therapeutic choice.

Higher dose immediate-release paracetamol (1000 mg), used for a short duration of time (4-5 days) and adhering to recommendations within the label for risk groups, delivers safe and more effective analgesia than lower doses for adults with mild to moderate acute pain.

Strengths and Limitations of this Study:

• Paracetamol is one of the most widely used OTC analgesics for the self- treatment of mild to moderate acute pain and this study aims to explore the practical question of whether the use of low doses, which is common in some countries, provides suboptimal pain relief.

• This review provides an overview of previous studies focusing on comparing the analgesic efficacy of different doses of paracetamol rather than comparing the effect of different OTC analgesics.

• This review details a narrative assessment of available systematic reviews, meta-analysis and randomised trials but does not offer a quantitative analysis of pain relief achieved with different doses of paracetamol.

• The review does not provide an overview of studies focusing on different forms of paracetamol.

• The focus for this review is immediate release paracetamol. Combined and slow release paracetamol formulations were not considered of relevance. The latter are in the process of being suspended across the European Union due to safety concerns with overdosing [1].

Keywords: Paracetamol, OTC, Pain, Doses, Review, Clinical trials.