Ligamentous Knee Joint Instability: Association with Chronic Conditions of the Knee and Treatment with Prolotherapy

Ross A. Hauser1, Danielle Steilen-Matias1, Johanna B. Lackner2, Benjamin R. Rawlings1, *, Jeevan Mann3, Torin Grogan4, Anna Phillips5
1 Caring Medical Florida, 9738 Commerce Center Ct., Fort Myers, FL 33908, USA
2 Avant Consulting, LLC, 842 Encino Drive, Aptos, CA 95003, USA
3 Department of Business, UBC Sauder School of Business, Surrey, USA
4 Department of Site Direction, Orbis Education, Chicago, USA
5 Department of Neuroscience, Northwestern Medicine, Chicago, USA

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© 2023 Hauser et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Caring Medical Florida, 9738 Commerce Center Ct., Fort Myers, FL 33908, USA; E-mail:


Ligamentous knee joint instability and other conditions associated with knee dysfunction are common musculoskeletal complaints that affect a large percentage of the global population. A healthy knee has normal joint mechanics and can maintain its stability as it responds to the forces placed upon it. Once undue forces, whether from injury, wear and tear, or overuse, cause the soft tissue structures of the knee to stretch beyond their normal range of motion, they can become lax, elongated, damaged, or torn, especially the ligaments. This condition, known as ligamentous knee instability, causes destructive joint forces to occur, which results in the development of other pathophysiologic conditions related to knee dysfunction, including osteoarthritis, patellar pain syndromes, tendinopathies, meniscus tears, and osteochondral defects. Traditional treatments address the consequences of joint instability, such as synovitis and joint swelling, but do not address the underlying ligament and/or disease that led to the joint instability. Prolotherapy promotes the repair of injured or degenerated tissues, such as ligaments, tendons, and menisci, by stimulating the physiological healing process of the joint. This process corrects the underlying joint instability, reduces associated pain, improves knee function, and has the potential to slow the degenerative process.

Keywords: Knee joint instability, Knee ligament injury, Meniscal injury, Osteoarthritis, Prolotherapy, Regenerative injection therapy, Chronic knee pain.