Anesthetic Effects of Sevoflurane on the Mouse Somatosensory Cortex: A Flavoprotein Fluorescence Imaging Study
Miki Senoo1, #, Takeo Sugita1, #, Tuwa Iwamoto1, Isato Fukushi2, 3, 4, Hitoshi Maeda2, Hirofumi Arisaka1, Shun-ichi Kuwana2, *
Identifiers and Pagination:Year: 2023
E-location ID: e187638632301261
Publisher ID: e187638632301261
Article History:Received Date: 12/11/2022
Revision Received Date: 6/1/2023
Acceptance Date: 11/1/2023
Electronic publication date: 07/02/2023
Collection year: 2023
open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Sevoflurane, a volatile inhaled anesthetic, is used clinically for general anesthesia in humans. However, the mechanism of action of sevoflurane is not fully understood. We used transcranial flavoprotein fluorescence imaging to visualize somatic sensory cortex responses to noxious stimuli in mice without and with sevoflurane inhalation anesthesia at different concentrations to investigate sevoflurane effects in mice.
A bipolar stimulating electrode was inserted into the left buccal region of the mouse, and changes in flavoprotein fluorescence intensity in the right somatic sensory cortex were recorded before and after electrical stimulation. Measurements were taken while the mouse was awake, at four levels of sevoflurane concentration (0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0%; 5 min each), and at 10, 20, and 30 min after the end of sevoflurane inhalation.
During the awake period, flavoprotein fluorescence intensities in the right sensory cortex decreased after the onset of electrical stimulation, but after 0.9 s, the fluorescence intensity began to increase, reaching a peak value at 2.1 s. This biphasic response significantly decreased at 0.5% sevoflurane and completely disappeared at sevoflurane concentrations above 1.5%, and restored 10 min after cessation of the sevoflurane inhalation. Furthermore, low concentrations of sevoflurane had little effect on the reduction of receptive fields or the conduction of excitation.
We conclude that low concentrations of sevoflurane have little effect on the reduction of receptive fields or the conduction of excitation, and that sevoflurane concentrations above 1.5% completely abolish the sensory cortex response elicited by noxious stimulation.